Educational modules

Module Summary: the atmosphere above the Arctic waters suffers from the increasing anthropogenic pressure. Various pollutants get into the Arctic region from the continent as the result of atmospheric discharges (fires, industrial and transport pollution) due to the long-range transport of air masses. The course gives its participants a chance to study the methods of defining the quantity and compositions of aerosols, acquire the sampling skills, and learn how to measure the aerosol optical depth of the atmosphere. The theoretical part is devoted to the interaction of suspended particulates and emission, thermal balance of an ecosystem and modern methods of air pollutants accounting in climatic models and in climatic changes forecasts.

Module Coordinators:

Irina Makhotina, researcher of The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute


Anastasia Kessel, researcher of The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (


1.    Aamaas B., Egede B.C. Stordal F., Berntsen T., Holmen K. Elemental Carbon Deposition to Svalbard Snow from Norwegian Settlements and Long-range Transport // Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, 2011. PP. 340–351.

2.    Andreae, M. O. and Gelencsér, A.: Black Carbon or Brown Carbon? The Nature of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols // Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6. 2006. PP. 3131–3148.

3.    Stone, R. S., Sharma S., Herber A., Eleftheriadis K., Nelson D.W.: A Characterization of Arctic Aerosols on the Basis of Aerosol Optical Depth and Black Carbon Measurements // Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 2:000027. PP. 1–22.

4.    Popovicheva O., Kireeva E., Persiantseva N., Timofeev M., Bladt H., Ivleva N.P., Niessner R., Moldanová J. Microscopic Characterization of Individual Particles from Multicomponent Ship Exhaust. J. Environ. Monit. 14. PP. 3101–3110.

Module Summary: the course gives students with no special hydrometeorological education an opportunity to study basic concepts and processes happening in the global ocean with further particular expansion into the peculiarities of the Arctic Ocean and Barents Sea.

Module Coordinator: Mikhail Makhotin, researcher of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (


1.    Stewart R. H. Introduction to Physical Oceanography. Texas A&M University, 2008. URL:

2.    Matthias T., Godfrey J.S. Regional Oceanography (2nd Edition). Daya Publishing House, Delhi, 2003. URL:

Module Summary: the course will briefly cover the following matters: morphology, fauna, ecological features and adaptations of soil nematodes of polar deserts in the Arctic and Antarctic regions and history of their study. Methods of study of nematodes biodiversity. The course also implies involving students into collection of samples to study the nematodes biodiversity which includes learning of collection methods, nematodes insulation, work with live material in a field laboratory, predefining the taxonomic composition (at the generic level) and communities’ structure in various microsites.

Module Coordinator: Vlada Peneva, researcher of the Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (


1. Andrássy I. 1998. Nematodes of the Sixth Continent // Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics, Vol. 1. PP. 107–186.

2. Chernov Y.I., Matveyeva N.V. Arctic Ecosystems in Russia (In: Wielgolaski F.E. (Ed.) Polar and Alpine Tundra). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1997. PP. 361–507.

3. Elshishka M., Lazarova S., Peneva V. Studies of the Genus Enchodelus Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Nordiidae) from Arctic polar deserts. 1. Species With Long Odontostyle: E. makarovae sp. n. and E. groenlandicus (Ditlevsen, 1927) Thorne, 1939, with an identification key to the species of the E. macrodorus group. ZooKeys. 2012. PP. 1–23.

4. Elshishka M., Lazarova S., Peneva V.K. Terrestrial Nematodes of Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica (In: Pimpirev Ch. & Chipev N. (Eds). Bulgarian Antarctic Research. A Synthesis). “St Kliment Ohridski”, University Press, Sofia. 2015. PP. 320–334.

5. Malakhov V.V. Nematodes: Structure, Development, System and Phylogeny. – Moscow, Science, 1986. P. 215.

Module Summary: the module is devoted to the mechanisms providing stability and safety of both sea and ground Arctic ecosystems. As the model group populations of birds and sea mammals are examined as the largest and most valuable in high-latitude ecosystems in terms of biocenotics. The course focuses on major biogeographical features of the natural communities in Arctic deserts and their dissimilarities from communities in the tundra zone. Special focus is on the phenomenon of breeding colonies of sea birds as an adaptive strategy of the group and modern methods of studying them. This course will help students understand basic laws of the extreme natural communities’ existence.

Module Coordinator:

Irina Pokrovskaya, Candidate in Biological Sciences, leading researcher of the Laboratory of Biogeography of Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), (


1. Anker-Nilssen T., Bakken V., Strøm H., Golovkin A.N., Bianki V.V., Tatarinkova I.P. The Status of Marine Birds Breeding in the Barents Sea Region, 2000. Rapport nr. 113. Tromsø, Norway: Norsk Polarinstitutt.

2. Nielsen R.H. Nature and Cultural Environments in the Arctic: Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard / TemaNord, 2006: 534.

3. Riedel A. The Arctic Marine Environment (chapter in: Tedsen E., Cavalieri S., Kraemer R.A. (eds.). “Arctic Marine Governance: Opportunities for Transatlantic Cooperation”). Springer – Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. PP. 21–45.

4. Harington C.R. The Evolution of Arctic Marine Mammals // Ecological Applications, 2008. Vol. 18 (2). PP. 23–40.

5. Drent R.H. The Timing of Birds’ Breeding Seasons: the Perrins Hypothesis Revisited Especially for Migrants // Ardea, 2006. Vol. 94(3). PP. 305–322.

Module summary: the course is devoted to the modern methods of molecular biology and their applicability in the Arctic researches. The following topics will be discussed: the set of “Omics” sciences and their analytical methods in studying biological objects; microbial diversity of the environment – study metagenome; study and use of the micro-organisms capacity operating in extreme environmental conditions. During the course students will study the basic methods and procedures used in researches of biological objects, as well as take samples to prepare them for analysis and allocate RNA / DNA within the ship's laboratory.

Module Coordinator:

Elena Gusakova, Postgraduate of the Department of biology, ecology and biotechnology, NArFU (


1.    Chao Y., Ma L., Yang Y., Ju F., Zhang X.-X., W.-M. Wu and T. Zhang (2013). Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Significant Changes of Microbial Compositions and Protective Functions During Drinking Water Treatment // Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, 2013. P. 3550.

2.    Horgan R.P., L.C. Kenny L.C. ‘Omic’ Technologies: Genomics, Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics // The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, Vol. 13 (3), 2011. PP. 189–195.

3.    Stougaard, P. Cool Biotechnology: Discovery and Application of Cold-adapted Organisms. 2017.

4.    Stougaard P. New Sustainable Dairy Processes with Enzymes from Extremophilic Microorganisms. 2017.

5.    Thomsen P.F., Willerslev E. Environmental DNA – An Emerging Tool in Conservation for Monitoring Past and Present Biodiversity // Biological Conservation, Vol. 183, 2015. PP. 4–18.

6.    Zhou J., Bruns M.A., Tiedje J.M. DNA Recovery from Soils of Diverse Composition // Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 62 (2), 1996. PP. 316–322.

Module Summary: the course includes a brief examination of the following matters: soils and soil coverings of the high-latitude Russian Arctic region, features of zoning the North landscapes; organomineral interactions in soils and soil-like substances under stone material and inside rocks and stones; peculiarities of the carbon cycle of Northern ecosystems and its changes as the result of man’s various activities. The course implies involving students into collection of samples to study soils which include learning of several simple methods of soil pits preparation, describing and selection of samples in the field, measuring the acidity and oxidation-reduction potential of soils and techniques of measuring soil respiration in the field.

Module Coordinators:

Sergey Goryachkin, Doctor of Geographical Sciences, scientific researcher, head of the Department of Soil Geography and Evolution, Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (

Andrey Dolgikh, Candidate in Geographical Sciences, scientific researcher of the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (

Nikita Mergelov, Candidate in Geographical Sciences, senior researcher of the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (


1.    Goryachkin S.V., Karavaeva N.A., Targulian V.O., Glazov M.V. Arctic Soils: Spatial Distribution, Zonality and Transformation due to Global Change. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. 1999. Vol. 10. PP. 235–250.

2.    Goryachkin S.V., Cherkinsky A.E.,.Chichagova O.A. The soil organic carbon dynamics in high latitudes of Eurasia using 14C data and the impact of potential climate change (In: R. Lal, J.M. Kimble, B.A. Stewart (eds.). Global Climate and Cold Regions Ecosystems). Lewis Publishers. 2000. PP. 145–161.

3.    Goryachkin S.V., Blume H.P., Beyer L., Campbell I., Claridge G., Bockheim J.G., Karavaeva N.A., Targulian V. and Tarnocai C. Similarities and Differences in Arctic and Antarctic Soil Zones (In: J. Kimble (ed.). Cryosols. Permafrost-affected Soils). Springer. 2004. PP. 49–70.

4.    Schuur E. A.G., Bockheim J., Canadell J.G., Euskirchen E., Field C.B., Goryachkin S.V., Hagemann S., Kuhry P., Lafleur P.M., Lee H., Mazhitova G., Nelson F.E., Rinke A., Romanovsky V.E., Shiklomanov N., Tarnocai C., Venevsky S., Vogel J.G., and Zimov S.A.. Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon to Climate Change: Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle BioScience, 2008, Vol. 58. No. 8. PP. 701–714.

5.    Mergelov N.S., Goryachkin S.V., Shorkunov I.G., Zazovskaya E.P., Cherkinsky A.E. 2012. Endolitic Pedogenesis and Rock Varnish on Massive Crystalline Rocks in East Antarctica. Eurasian Soil Science. 45 (10): 901–917.

6.    Dolgikh A.V., Mergelov N.S., Abramov A.A., Lupachev A.V., Goryachkin S.V. Soils of Enderby Land. In: J.Bockheim (ed.). The Soils of Antarctic. 2015. Springer. PP. 45–63.

7.    Mergelov N.S., Konyushkov D.E., Lupachev A.V., Goryachkin S.V. Soils of MacRobertson Land. In: J.Bockheim (ed.). The Soils of Antarctic. 2015. Springer. PP. 65–86.

8.    Mergelov N.S., Shorkunov I.G., Targulian V.O., Dolgikh A.V., Abrosimov K.N., Zazovskaya E.P., & Goryachkin S.V. 2016. Soil-like Patterns inside the Rocks: Structure, Genesis, and Research Techniques. In: Frank-Kamenetskaya O.V., Panova E.G., Vlasov D.Y., editors. Biogenic-Abiogenic Interactions in Natural and Anthropogenic Systems. Springer International Publishing, PP. 205–222.

9.    D.V. Karelin, E.P. Zazovskaya, V.A. Shishkov, A.V. Dolgikh, I.G. Shorkunov, A.V. Pochikalov, A.A.Karpov, E.V. Antonov and S.V. Goryachkin. The Emissions of Biogenic Greenhouse Gases from Arctic and North Boreal Soils due to the Different Types of Anthropogenic Land Use at Local and Regional Scales: Prospects and Dynamics. Report Series in Aerosol Science, 2016. No. 180. PP. 215–222. 

Module Summary:

The course will briefly cover the following matters: basics of the scientific subject of paleomagnetology and possibilities of utilizing the paleomagnetic method to build paleotectonic models (magnetotectonic principles), for the reconstruction of the geologic history of the Arctic region in particular. Also it will touch upon the problematic and debating aspects of understanding the Mesozoic geologic history of the Frantz Josef Land Archipelago. Paleomagnetic data is nowadays an integral part of paleotectonic, paleogeographic and paleoclimatological research studies, which provides them with a quantitative basis. The lectures tell about the structure and variations of the Earth magnetic field, theories of its origin, techniques of paleomagnetic and petromagnetic analysis and modern hardware and software resources of the studies (ranging from samples collection to interpretation of laboratory tests results). The second part of the course gives students the knowledge of brightest examples of solving various geologic matters by the methods of petromagnetism and paleomagnetism. Students obtain the understanding of geologic composition and evolution of major continental framework structures of the Arctic Ocean. This course will give students an opportunity to get to know the latest research data in this field of study and understand the principles of paletectonic reconstructions building and its importance to the ongoing process of studying the Arctic sector. Also it implies practical seminars for all interested students with demonstration and explanation of collection methods of frame samples for paleomagnetic research studies. Under fair conditions for landing students might personally examine geologic objects on the island Guker which are vital for understanding the history of the Mesozoic magmatism on the Frantz Josef Land Archipelago.

Module Coordinators:

Dmitry Metelkin, Doctor of Geological-Mineralogical Sciences, professor, deputy director of the Department of General and Regional Geology, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk State University (;

Nikolay Matushkin, Candidate of Geological-Mineralogical Sciences, deputy dean of Science, associate professor of the Department of General and Regional Geology, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk State University (

Nikolay Mikhaltsov, Candidate of Geological-Mineralogical Sciences, scientific researcher of the Laboratory of Geodynamics and Paleomagnetism of Central and Eastern Arctic, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk State University (


1.    Butler R. Paleomagnetism: Magnetic Domains to Geologic Terranes. Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992. URL:

2.    Metelkin D.V., Vernikovsky V.A., Tolmacheva T.Yu., Matushkin N.Yu., Zhdanova A.I., Pisarevsky S.A. First paleomagnetic data for the New Siberian Islands: Implications for Arctic paleogeography. Gondwana Research, doi:10.1016/

3.    Metelkin, D.V., Vernikovsky, V.A., Matushkin, N.Yu. Arctida between Rodinia and Pangea. Precambrian Research, 2015. V. 259. P. 114–129. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2014.09.013.

4.    Верниковский В.А., Добрецов Н.Л., Метелкин Д.В., Матушкин Н.Ю., Кулаков И.Ю., 2013. Проблемы тектоники и тектонической эволюции Арктики // Геология и геофизика, Т. 54, № 8, C. 1083–1107, (ENG) doi:10.1016/j.rgg.2013.07.006.

5.    Матушкин Н.Ю., Метелкин Д.В., Верниковский В.А., Травин А.В., Жданова А.И. Геология и возраст основного магматизма на о. Жаннетты (архипелаг Де-Лонга) – значение для палеотектонических реконструкций в Арктике. Доклады академии наук, 2016. Т. 467. № 1. С. 61–66.

6.    Метелкин Д.В., Казанский А. Ю. Основы магнитотектоники: учеб. пособие / Новосиб. гос. ун-т., Новосибирск, 2014. 127 с.

7.    Михальцов Н.Э., Карякин Ю.В., Абашев В.В., Брагин В.Ю., Верниковский В.А., Травин А.В. Геодинамика Баренцево-Карской окраины в мезозое на основе новых палеомагнитных данных для пород архипелага Земля Франца-Иосифа // ДАН, 2016, Т. 471, № 6, C. 692–696.

Module Summary: the course has two major priorities: 1) to identify main driving forces of Russia’s foreign policy in the post-Soviet era and; 2) to describe the principal functional and regional dimensions of Moscow’s present-day international course. Particularly, it is planned to examine Russia’s contemporary foreign policy discourse, including main schools of foreign policy thought – Atlanticism, Eurasianism, geopolitics, neorealism, neoliberalism, post-positivism, religious currents, environmentalists, anti-globalists, etc. The aim is also to trace the evolution of Russian foreign policy and military doctrines as well as national security strategies over the last quarter of the century. A special attention will be given to the analysis of foreign policy-making mechanism, including the role of different government agencies and non-state actors, as well as the interplay of formal and informal structures in the process. Among the functional dimensions of the Kremlin’s international policies, the priority will be given to exploring its foreign economic, military-political, arms control, environmental and humanitarian strategies. Among the regional dimensions of Moscow’s foreign policies, the main attention will be paid to Russia’s relations with the U.S., European Union and NATO as well as to Russia’s policies in the High North, Middle East and Asia-Pacific regions. Finally, the course will be concluded by an overall assessment of the role and place of Russia in the present-day international relations system.

Module Coordinator:

Alexander Sergunin, Ph.D. (Political Science), Professor of the Department of International Relations Theory & History, School of International Relations, St. Petersburg State University (


1.    Coning C.D., Mandrup T., Odgaard L. (Eds). The BRICS and Coexistence: An Alternative Vision of World Order. Abingdon: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. 214 p.

2.    Gvosdev N.K, Marsh Сh. Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors, and Sectors. Washington: CQ Press, 2013. 456 p.

3.    Roberts S.P. Russia as an International Actor: The View from Europe and the US. Helsinki: The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 2013. 70 p.

4.    Sergunin A. Explaining Russian Foreign Policy Behavior: Theory and Practice. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2015. 262 p.

5.    Sergunin A., Konyshev V. Russia in the Arctic. Hard or Soft Power? Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2016. 192 p.

6.    Tsygankov A.P. Russia’s Foreign Policy: Change and Continuity in National Identity. 4th edition. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2016. 336 p.

Module Summary:

In the current difficult geopolitical conditions Arctic remains to be one of the few regions of fruitful cooperation and dialogue. States realize that those challenges, posed by harsh conditions of the Arctic region, can only be met by joint efforts. Understanding of that is especially important taking into account coming intensification of the economic activities in the region, in particular, offshore oil and gas exploration and production, fisheries, transport etc.

One should bear in mind that productive regional cooperation would not be possible without a solid foundation for it – specifically, international law. What are the rights, responsibilities and jurisdiction of coastal and non-coastal states in the different waters of Arctic? What is the balance between international and national legal frameworks for activities in the High North? What are the main legal challenges and difficulties in the region? What new tracks of international cooperation in the Arctic should we expect?

Discussion of these and some other issues will be comprised by the module “Legal domain of Arctic”.

Module Coordinators:

Andrey Todorov, senior research fellow of the Russian Institute for strategic studies(;


  1. EDWARD T. CANUEL The Four Arctic Law Pillars: A Legal Framework     
  2. Arctic Governance Compendium
  3. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982
  4. Jennifer Dagg, Peggy Holroyd, Nathan Lemphers, Randy Lucas and Benjamin Thibault Comparing the Offshore Drilling Regulatory Regimes of the Canadian Arctic, the U.S., the U.K., Greenland and Norway
  5. Carsten Ørts, Hansen Peter Grønsedt, Christian Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian Hendriksen Arctic Shipping: Commercial Opportunities and Challenges
  6. Donald R. Rothwell The Canadian-U.S. Northwest Passage Dispute: A Reassessment

Updated 14.03.2017