Educational modules AFU-2016

Module summary:

This course concerns following issues: fauna, ecological peculiarities and adaptations of high-latitude Russian Arctic insects and the history of their observation; adaptation mechanisms in benthos communities at high latitudes of the European North of Russia. Tendencies and challenges of insect reclamation of water habitats and extreme biotopes; study methods of land, fresh- and sea-water ecosystems biodiversity.

This module presupposes that the students take part in sample collection to study biodiversity, which presupposes the study of several simple methods of sample collection in the fields, techniques of sample analyses, work with the collected samples in a field laboratory, preliminary determination of taxon composition and structure of communities of different biotopes.

Module facilitators: Sokolova Svetlana, research scientist, Russian Museum of biodiversity centers, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North (svetlasokolova@yandex.ru)

References:

  1. Bolotov I.N., Bespalaya Y.V., Aksenova O.V., Gofarov M.Y., Sokolova S.E. Mollusks in the Zoobenthos of Relict Lakes with Abnormally High Biological Production in the Eastern European Subarctic. Inland Water Biology. 2014. 7(1): 61–71;
  2. Bespalaya Y., Bolotov I., Aksenova O., Kondakov A., Paltser I., Gofarov M. Reproduction of Pisidium casertanum (Poli, 1791) in Arctic lake // Royal Society Open Science. 2015. Vol. 2. Issue 1. P. 140212. Online-version. Published 28 January 2015;
  3. Bespalaya Yu.V., Bolotov I.N., Usacheva O.V. Structure and species diversity of topical groups of mollusks in lakes of the Solovetsky Islands and Onega Peninsula, northwestern Russia. Russian Journal of Ecology. 2011. 42(2). P. 143-150;
  4. Bolotov I.N., Bespalaya Yu.V., Usacheva O.V. Ecology and evolution of hydrobionts in hot springs of the Subarctic and Arctic: formation of similar assemblages, adaptation of species, and microevolutionary processes. Biology Bulletin Reviews. 2012. Vol. 2. No. 4. P. 340–348;
  5. Sokolova S.E., Bespalaya Yu.V. Local faunas of molluscs of the European North of Russia: Kenozersky and Kozhozersky groups of lakes. Journal of the Northern (Arctic) Federal University. Series: Natural sciences. 2010. 1: 63-71. (in Russian);
  6. The functioning of the subarctic hydrothermal ecosystems in the winter. editorEd. KG Bogolitsyn, IN Bolotov. Ekaterinburg: Publishing House of the Ural Branch of RAS, 2011. 252 p. (in Russian).

Module summary:

This module suits young researchers who are interested in the study of anthropogenic influence and its consequences on the Arctic environment and population in the context of climate change. The module aim is the acquire knowledge and to improve skills in research in the sphere of the climate change and anthropogenic influence on the Arctic environment and indigenous population.

The module structure and objectives are as follows: professional guidance of both students and post-graduate students on modern trends of scientific research in the Arctic: ecological condition of the Arctic coastal zones and seas; contamination sources and the main ways of the Arctic ecosystems contamination level lowering; sustainable resource management; resource-conscious production technologies and their monitoring; ecological risks modeling and management; ecological damage evaluation; adaptability of the indigenous peoples of the North to climate changes (adaptability as an ability to adapt to changes and a desire to adapt).

The module implementation presupposes field research which is supposed to help students to develop their professional skills, to make the study if the risks and challenges in the Arctic more dynamic and creative: detection and comprehensive description of natural and anthropogenic ecosystems prone to ecological risks at the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, Kolguev Island, Matveev Island, Dolgy Island and Varnek settlement. Surveying of the local population for the current challenges analysis, including the challenges at traditional lifestyle preservation in the context of climate change. In the result of the educational and scientific work a workshop is to be held and a report is to be written and presented to the public.

Module facilitators: Kostovska Silvia Kostadinova – Ph.D in geography, senior research scientist, Institute of geography, Russian Academy of Sciences (SilvaKos@yandex.ru)

Nekrich Alina Sergeyevna – Ph.D in geography, research scientist, Institute of geography, Russian Academy of Sciences (alina.nekrich@gmail.com)

References:

  1. Economic savings linked to future Arctic shipping trade are at odds with climate change mitigation, Haakon Lindstad, Ryan M. Bright, Anders H. Stroemman, Original Research Article Transport Policy, Vol. 45, pp. 24-30, 2016.
  2. Impacts on human health in the Arctic owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling – The EU ArcRisk project policy outcome, Jozef M. Pacyna, Ian T. Cousins, Crispin Halsall etc., Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 50, pp. 200–213, 2015.
  3. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Canadian Arctic, T. Pearce, B. Smit, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, from Climate Vulnerability, Vol. 4, pp. 293-303, 2013.

Module summary

The module is focused on hydrometeorological research in the Russian Arctic zone and its history; on fundamental and applied aspects of research; on the practical value of the data acquired within the longstanding period of observations; changes in the energy and mass exchange within the system “atmosphere – ice – ocean”; regularity exposure between climate change and ice cover of the studied territory. The module aim is to acquire the skills of conducting special hydrometeorological observations using special tools and equipment and the skills of the acquired data report, as well as the use of the existing data bases for the data practical application both in economic activities and for scientific purposes.

During field research the students are to acquire the skills of work with the special tools and equipment. As a result of the theoretical and practical part a report on the expedition field research is to be compiled.

Module facilitator: Ryazanova Natalia — Ph.D in geography, associate professor, chairman of the Laboratory of geoecology and sustainable management of natural resources at Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation

(natamgimo@gmail.com)

References:

  1. Buzin I.V. On the Spreading of Old Ice in the Barents Sea.// International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering (ISSN 1053-5381), vol. 19, Nu. 4, December 2009
  2. Buzin I.V. Spreading of the Multiyear Ice in the Barents Sea.// Proc of the 19th Internat. Offshore and Polar Eng. Conf., June 21-26, 2009, CD, pp. 643-648, Osaka, Japan
  3. Kubyshkin N.V., Andreev O.M., Borodulin V.V., Glazovsky A.F., Gudoshnikov Yu.P., Zubakin G.K., Macheret Yu. Ya., Skutin A.A. Characteristics of icebergs in their calving sites in Russian Arctic results of airborne and direct studies during IPY 07/08.// Proc of the 19th Internat. Offshore and Polar Eng. Conf., June 21-26, 2009, Vol. 1, pp. 643-648, Osaka, Japan
  4. Nesterov A., Sagerup T., Gudoshnikov Yu., Liferov P. Ice drift in the north-eastern Barents sea: measurements and simulation.// Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (POAC), June 9-12, 2009, Lulea, Sweden

Module summary:

This module is dedicated to the mechanisms which provide both sea and land Arctic ecosystems consistency and security. Bird populations are studied as a pattern group as they are the most wide-spread and notional for biocenosis in high-latitude ecosystems. The module focuses on the major biological and geographical differences of natural communities in different zonal and latitudinal areas of the Arctic zone from Southern shrub tundra subzone to Arctic desert subzone. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of birds seasonal migrations as an adaptation strategy and modern methods of their study. The module will help the students understand the basic principles of extreme natural communities existence.

Module facilitators:

  • Pokrovskaya Irina, Ph.D in biology, senior research scientist, Institute of geography, Russian Academy of Sciences (savair@yandex.ru)
  • Sophia Rozenfeld, Researcher, Institute of Ecology and Evolution. AN Severtsov

References:

  1. Baldassarre G.A., Bolden E.G., 2006. Waterfowl ecology and Management. Second edition. Malabar, Florida. 567 p.
  2. Cooch E.G., Lank D.B., Dzubin A., Rockwell R.F., Cooke F., 1991. Body size variation in Lesser Snow Geese: environmental plasticity in gosling growth rates // Ecology. V. 72. P. 503–512.
  3. Drent R.H., 2006. The timing of birds’ breeding seasons: the Perrins hypothesis revisited especially for migrants // Ardea. V. 94. № 3. P. 305–322.
  4. Graaf van der A.J., 2006. Geese on a green wave: Flexible migrants in a changing world. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. 224 р.
  5. Jeugd van der H.P., Eichorn G., Litvin K.E., Stahl J., Larsson K., Graaf van der A.J., Drent R.H., 2009. Keeping up with early springs: rapid range expansion in an avian herbivore incurs a mismatch between reproductive timing and food supply // Global Change Biology. V. 15, P. 1057–1071.
  6. Sheremetev I.S., Rozenfeld S.B., Sipko T.P., Gruzdev A.R., 2014. Extinction of large herbivore mammals: Niche Characteristics of the Musk Ox Ovibos moschatus and the Reindeer Rangifer tarandus Coexisting in Isolation // Biology bulletin rewiews Vol. 4 No. 5. Р. 433–442.
  7. The status of marine birds breeding in the Barents Sea Region Norsk Polarinstitutt, 2000, Ed: Anker-Nilssen et al. 211 p.

Module summary:

This modules is about the geological structure of the archipelagoes (Taimyr – Severnaya Zemlya system, Novosibirskiy Islands, Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land) which constitute the infolded margins of the Arctic region continental structures and also about malaeomagnetism research which has been held in this region for the last 13 years.

The module tells about archipelago geological structure, their connection with continental and ocean structures, principles of palaeomagnetic method application in geotectonics (principles of magnetic tectonics), dislocation reconstruction and continental structures of the Arctic ocean margins evolution. This module is to help the students get acquainted with the results of the latest research in this sphere and to understand the basics of paleotectonic reconstructions and their value for the rapid research in the Arctic region.

Module facilitators:

  • Matushkin N.Yu., senior research scientist, Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences (MatushkinNY@ipgg.sbras.ru);
  • Mikhaltsov N., research scientist, Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences (MikhaltsovNE@ipgg.sbras.ru)

References:

  1. Butler R. Paleomagnetism: Magnetic Domains to Geologic Terranes. Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992 (доступно на http://lewis.up.edu/chp/butler/books/main.htm).
  2. Metelkin D.V., Vernikovsky V.A., Tolmacheva T.Yu., Matushkin N.Yu., Zhdanova A.I., Pisarevsky S.A. First paleomagnetic data for the New Siberian Islands: Implications for Arctic paleogeography. Gondwana Research, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2015.08.008
  3. Metelkin, D.V., Vernikovsky, V.A., Matushkin, N.Yu. Arctida between Rodinia and Pangea. Precambrian Research, 2015. V. 259. P. 114-129. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2014.09.013
  4. Moskowitz B. Hitchhiker’s Guide to Magnetism, 1991 (доступно на http://www.geo.edu.ro/~paleomag/Teaching_materials.htm).
  5. Tauxe L. Paleomagnetic principles and practice, 1998 (доступно на http://www.geo.edu.ro/~paleomag/Teaching_materials.htm).
  6. Vernikovsky V.A., Vernikovskaya A.E. Neoproterozoic Taimyr and Yenisey Ridge Fold Belts (Siberia): Tectonic Evolution. Precambrian Research, 2001. V., Iss. 4, P. 808.

Module summary:

Today Arctic drags the attention of the international community for a number of reasons. The Arctic region is not only located on top of the world, but is also in a public eye.

How has the Northern periphery become one of the world key regions? What makes not only the Arctic states governments, but also other countries and international organizations pay attention to the Arctic? How, despite the interests collisions, does Arctic still manage to remain the territory of dialogue? These ans some other questions are to be answered during the work within this educational module.

This module is also focused on the basic theories in the sphere of international relations security and national Arctic strategies are to be analysed taking into account these theories.

Module facilitator: Danilov N., Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (n.danilov@narfu.ru)

References:

  1. Arctic strategy documents http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/
  2. Arctic Policies of Arctic States. Edited by Dr. Willy Østreng http://www.arctis-search.com/
  3. Arctic Policies of Non-Arctic States. Edited by Dr. Njord Wegge http://www.arctis-search.com/
  4. Strategy Papers on the Arctic or High North: A comparative study and analysis 2012 By Alyson JK Bailes & Lassi Heininen. Institute of International Affairs - Centre for Small State Studies. http://www.rha.is/static/files/NRF/Publications/arcticstrats.pdf

Module summary:

Cultural landscape concept is a popular interdisciplinary field of modern scientific knowledge which has two major vectors for development: Geography (landscape study, this approach is focused on the nature) and Culturology (this approach is focused on the culture).

The assessment of the Arctic territories for recreation and tourism development considers preliminary potential, opportunity and risk determination (if this area is attractive, what the landscape recreational capacity is, whether the natural and cultural and historical legacy is rich and diverse, what ecological risks can be faces, etc.). The module aim is to determine Arctic and Subarctic cultural landscapes and to assess their potential for tourism development and to calculate the recreational capacity of natural and anthropogenic landscape.

Module facilitators:

  • Drachkova Lyudmila, Ph.D in geography, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (l.drachkova@narfu.ru)

References::

  1. Bazilevich N. I., Tishkov A. A. Live and dead reserves and primary production in polar desert, tundra and forest tundra of the former Soviet Union // Ecosystems of the world 3. Polar and alpine tundra / Ed. F. E. Wielgolaski. — Amsterdam; Lausanne; New York; Oxford; Shannon; Singapore; Tokyo: Elsevier publ., 1997. — Р. 509—539.
  2. CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna): Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010 — Selected indicators of change / CAFF Intern. Secretariat. — Akureyri, Iceland, May 2010.Conservation and Use of the Landscape Potential of Europe. Doc. 10928. 5 May 2006. Report Committee on the Environment, Agriculture and Local and Regional Affairs Rapporteur: Mr Valeriy Sudarenkov, Russian Federation, Socialist Group. URL: http://assembly.coe.int/ASP/Doc/XrefViewHTML.asp?FileID=11235&Language=en
  3. Puzachenko Y., Sandlersky R., Sankovski A. Methods of evaluating thermodynamic properties of landscape cover using multispectral refl ected radiation measurements by the Landsat satellite // Entropy. — 2013. — Vol. 15. — Р. 3970—3982.
  4. Europe Landscape Convention - Европейская конвенция о ландшафтах. 2000 год. URL: http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Reports/ Html/ 176.htm
  5. Forbes B. C., Fauria M. M., Zetterberg P. Russian arctic warming and ‘greening’ are closely tracked by tundra shrub willows // Global Change Biology. — 2010. — 16. — P. 1542—1554.

Module summary:

In the Arctic such factors as low temperature, fluctuations of the geomagnetic and electric fields, atmospheric pressure, etc. influence a human organism. In the Arctic it is necessary to adapt to frequent geomagnetic disturbances, "ultraviolet starvation", sharp fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure, low humidity and air temperature. Adaptation development depends not only on the peculiarities and strength of the environmental factors, the nature of the stimulus, but also on the individual response, determining the sensitivity to stimulus, the speed of adaptation process and its intensity.

During studying the module "Human Adaptation to the Arctic Conditions", students will become familiar with the general issues connected with the impact of the Arctic environment on the human body, they will acquire a general idea of the influence of helio-meteorological factors of the Arctic environment on the major functional systems of the human body and the peculiarities of the human body adaptation to sailing at high latitudes. During workshops, the students will be able to get acquainted with the methods of evaluation of the functional state of the basic life support systems of the human body in the Arctic environment.

Module facilitator: Vorobyova Nadejda, MD, Professor, Northern State Medical University (nadejdav0@gmail.com)

References:

  1. Klaus, D.; Dorn, W.; Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A.; Mielke, M. Evaluation of Two Cloud Parameterizations and Their Possible Adaptation to Arctic Climate Conditions. Atmosphere 2012, 3, 419-450.
  2. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/arctic-meteorology/arctic-people.html
  3. https://www.pubmed.com
Updated 01.04.2016