Educational modules

Data analysis and graphical representation of results are an integral part of scientific research. A high quality analysis primarily based on two key elements: a basic knowledge of statistics and proficiency in modern statistical software. One of the most popular and powerful cutting-edge tool in this field is R (www.r-project.org). R is the leading programming language in statistics, data mining and vector graphics for scientists at present. Moreover, R is free and easy to learn software environment. The main aim of this course is to introduce R using various scientific tasks from biology, ecology and other disciplines. During the course you will learn basic programming commands in R and refresh your knowledge about statistical methods (t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression). With the knowledge gained during the course, you will be able to use R for statistical analyses and vector graphs in your future research career. Both students and senior researchers are welcome to join this course!

Module coordinators:

Sergey Morozov PhD candidate (Biology), Ecological Genetics Research Unit (EGRU), of University of Helsinki (sergey.morozov@helsinki.fi);

Literature:

1. The R Book, 2nd Edition by Michael J. Crawley, Published by John Wiley & Sons, 2012

2. R Graphics Cookbook by Winston Chang, Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2012

3. http://www.statmethods.net/

The Arctic is a unique and vulnerable environment with more than 21.000 species of plants, fungi, and animals. Many of them are cold-resistant organisms showing remarkable diversity of adaptations to low temperatures and extreme seasonality. Arctic biota is particularly sensitive to rapid climate change which has happened during the last 50 years. Getting an overview on biodiversity of Arctic ecosystems and potential responses of arctic populations/species to global warming is the main goal of this course. The first four lectures will introduce the basics of Arctic Biology (MSc. Sergey Morozov), while the last two will be devoted to show the example of different survival strategies of some arctic species (Dr. Sophia Rozenfeld). The species considerably differ in their population size, range, and in trends of these characteristics. What defines the variability of the population number and range? The research includes detailed description of ecology, migration, population range and other features of geese and actual interactions between geese, plant, predators and human in the changing conditions.

Module coordinator:

Sophia Rozenfeld Dr. Sci. (Geography), Institute of Ecological and Evolution Problems, the Russian Academy of Science (rozenfeldbro@mail.ru);

Sergey Morozov PhD candidate (Biology), Ecological Genetics Research Unit (EGRU), of University of Helsinki (sergey.morozov@helsinki.fi);

Literature:

1. Meltofte, H. (ed.), Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri, Iceland, 674-pages, 2013.

2. Tundra-Taiga Biology, Robert M. M. Crawford, 288 pages, 2013.

3. The Biology of Polar Regions, Second Edition, D.N. Thomas, G.E. Fogg, P. Convey, C.H. Fritsen, J.-M. Gili, R. Gradinger, J. Laybourn-Parry, K. Reid, and D.W.H. Walton, Biology of Habitats Series, 416 pages, 2008.

4. E.V. Syroechkovsky. The mechanisms of adaptation of Anserini to the arctic environment. M.: KMK press, 2013, 297 p.

5. S.B. Rozenfeld. Geese feeding ecology in Russian Arctic. M.: KMK press, 2009, 236 p.

J.M. Black, J. Prop, K. Larsson. Wild goose dilemmas. Branta press., Groningen, 2007, 254 p.

The module is a professionally-oriented course for undergraduate and postgraduate students. The course content is focused on such topics as water pollution in the Arctic seas by oil spills, chemical compounds and sea transport; climate change and melting of the Arctic ice, the reduction of the population of the Arctic animals and changes of their habitat; environmental risks connected with natural resources extraction in the Arctic shelf. The module contains lectures and practical classes, as well as field research. The practical part of the course includes data analysis and graphical representation of the results. Studying this course in combination with other scientific disciplines will make you a highly qualified specialist in the field of geoecology, biogeography, rational use of natural resources.

Module coordinators:

Silvia Kostovska Dr. Sci. (Geography), Institute of Geography, the Russian Academy of Sciences (silvakos@yandex.ru);

Literature:

1. Tundra-Taiga Biology, Robert M. M. Crawford, 288 pages, 2013

2. The Biology of Polar Regions, Second Edition, D.N. Thomas, G.E. Fogg, P. Convey, C.H. Fritsen, J.-M. Gili, R. Gradinger, J. Laybourn-Parry, K. Reid, and D.W.H. Walton, Biology of Habitats Series, 416 pages, 2008

3. The R Book, 2nd Edition by Michael J. Crawley, Published by John Wiley & Sons, 2012

4. R Graphics Cookbook by Winston Chang, Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2012

5. http://www.statmethods.net

The module «Green Economics: Innovation and Environmental Policy» is a professionally oriented course for undergraduate and graduate students. The course describes and summarizes previously studied subjects related to the problems of ecology and nature management, as well as scientific and technical innovation, as it focuses mainly on the analysis of modern innovation and environmental policy, research on the development of the sectors of the green economics and green growth.

The main principle of the course composition is complexity (practical use of the obtained knowledge in terms of the interdisciplinary approach). Students need to obtain a wide range of skills related to different areas — from ecology and economics to management of the national economy. The course focuses on the most important problems in the field of innovation, research and environmental policy, as well as studies on development of the Russian sector of the green economy.

Therefore, its structure can change depending on the current situation, the course touches upon the most important aspects of technology policy, the post-crisis development of the innovation system, the modern state environmental policy, and international experience in the development of innovations, opportunities and prospects for green growth.

Module coordinator:

Svetlana Lipina Dr. Sci. (Economy), Director of the Center for Green Economy, Ministry of Economic Development of Russia and Russian Academy of Sciences (s.lipina@mail.ru)

Literature:

1. Barbier E. The policy challenges for green economy and sustainable economic development // Natural Resources Forum, vol. 35 (3), 2011. P. 233–245.

2. Blueprint for a Green Economy, Pears et al, 1989.

3. Inclusive Green Growth:The Pathway to Sustainable Development. The World Bank. Washington, D.C.2012.

4. Little Green Data Book, World Bank, 2011.

5. Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication.

http://www.unep.org/documents.multilingual/default.asp?DocumentID=624&ArticleID=6548&l=en&t=long

The polar and circumpolar regions are important regulators of the Global Climate. Climate change is faster and more severe in the Arctic than in the rest part of the world. The rapid melting of the Arctic sea ice over the past several decades is a strong evidence of this process. This module will address meteorology, the causes of climate change in the Arctic, the issues connected with the sea ice melting and the role of the Arctic in the global climate system. we will study and discuss

Module coordinator:

Fernanda Casagrande PhD candidate (Meteorology) at National Institute for Space Research, Brazil. (fernanda.casagrande@inpe.br)

Literature:

1. Bintanja, R., and E. C. van der Linden (2013), The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic, Nature Scientific Reports.

2. Bitz, C. M., J. K. Ridley, M. M. Holland, and H. Cattle (2012), 20th and 21st Century Arctic climate in global climate models, in Arctic
Climate Change—The ACSYS Decade and Beyond, edited by P. Lemke and H.-W. Jacobi, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp.
405–436

3. Karlsson, J., and G. Svensson (2013), Consequences of poor representation of Arctic sea-ice albedo and cloud-radiation interactions in
the CMIP5 model ensemble, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40.

This module focuses on geo-political developments in the Arctic and their nexus with multidisciplinary questions in relevant areas of international relations, law, and global issues that shape contemporary geo-political architecture in the region. At the outset the module shall examine major trends in Arctic geo-politics and the main pillar of development, including issues of Arctic diplomacy, cooperation, security, governance, human rights and resources. Then it shall analyze Russia’s geo-political interests in the Arctic.

Module’s Objectives

  • To discuss the most topical issues and key developments with regards to Arctic geo- politics
  • To analyze Russia’s national interests in the Arctic
  • To enhance students’ specialized multidisciplinary knowledge of the Arctic geo-politics and the Russian Arctic

Module coordinators:

Natalia Loukacheva S.J.D., Doctor of Juridical Science, and Ph.d. (Law), Canada Research Chair/ Associate Professor, University of Northern British Columbia, Canada, Natalia.Loukacheva@unbc.ca

List of literature:

Natalia Loukacheva, Polar Law Developments and Major Trends, in N. Loukacheva ed. Polar Law Textbook II, Nordic Council of Ministers, TemaNord 535:2013, pp.17-35

http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:701016/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Anton Vasiliev, Security and Cooperation in the Arctic: New Factors, Challenges and Prerequisites, The Arctic Herald, No 2, 2012, pp. 16-21 www.arctic-herald.ru

Arthur Chilingarov, Russia in the Arctic: Opportunities and Peculiarities of International Cooperation, Russian International Affairs Council. December 3, 2013. http://russiancouncil.ru/en/inner/?id_4=2782#top-content

The Fundamentals of the State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic in the period up to 2020 and beyond, September 18, 2008

http://www.arctis-search.com/Russian+Federation+Policy+for+the+Arctic+to+2020

Lassi Heininen, Alexander Sergunin, Gleb Yarovoy, Russian Strategies in the Arctic: Avoiding a New Cold War. Valdai Discussion Club Grantees Report, 2014 http://www.uarctic.org/media/857300/arctic_eng.pdf

The module is a series of lectures and seminars on the history of Arctic exploration and its development from ancient times to the present. Emphasis will be placed on the reasons of discoveries in the Arctic, such as economic development, the search for new trade routes, political and geopolitical interests of different countries. Methods of practical adaptation to living in the Arctic are also part of this module. Much focus is put on practical work which includes collection of sociological, historical, and cultural information in the settlements of indigenous population and people who temporarily live in the Arctic territory.

Module coordinators:

Tatiana Troshina Dr. Sci. (History), Professor, Institute of Integrated Safety, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russia (t.troshina@narfu.ru)

Literature:

1. The fundamentals of state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic in the period up to 2020 and beyond, 2008

2. http://www.sevprostor.ru/

3. http://statehistory.ru/books/Vadim-Starkov_Ocherki-istorii-osvoeniya-Arktiki

In the Arctic such factors as low temperature, fluctuations of the geomagnetic and electric fields, atmospheric pressure influence the human organism. It is now believed that cosmic nature has a very important impact on human health: we mean cosmic rays and solar activity changes. In the Arctic it is necessary to adapt to frequent geomagnetic disturbances, «ultraviolet starvation», sharp fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure, low humidity and air temperature. Adaptation development depends not only on the peculiarities and strength of the environmental factors, the nature of the stimulus, but also on the individual response, determining the sensitivity to stimulus, the speed of adaptation process and its intensity.

While studying the module «Human Adaptation to the Arctic Conditions» students will become familiar with the general issues connected to the impact of the Arctic environment on the human body. They will acquire the general idea of the influence of helio- meteorological factors of the Arctic environment on the major functional systems of the human body and the peculiarities of the human body adaptation to sailing at high latitudes. During workshops the students will be able to get acquainted with the methods of evaluation of the functional state of the basic life support systems of the human body in the Arctic environment.

Module coordinators:

Аrtem Podoplekin Dr. Sci. (Biology), Assistant Professor, Institute of Biomedical Research, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russia (a.n.podoplekin@narfu.ru),

Literature:

1. Klaus, D.; Dorn, W.; Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A.; Mielke, M. Evaluation of Two Cloud Parameterizations and Their Possible Adaptation to Arctic Climate Conditions. Atmosphere 2012, 3, 419-450.

2. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/arctic-meteorology/arctic-people.html

3. https://www.pubmed.com

The course studies the legal status of the Arctic region and Northern Sea Route. It is based on the Environmental Law of the Russian Federation and International Environmental Law and gives students the general overview on legal protection of environment of the Arctic region, legal status of specially protected natural territories, continental shelf and free economic zone. The topic of natural resources of the Arctic is also one of the main issues in the course: students will get acquainted with legal regulation of the natural resources use and protection and legal regulation of indemnification to environment from oil spills. The course also touches upon the historic and cultural heritage of the region in terms of such issues as legal regulation of the rights of indigenous peoples of the Arctic region, legal status of the Solovetsky Islands, legal status of the Archipelago Novaya Zemlya, and legal regulation of the Archipelago of Franz Joseph Land. There are no specific requirements for this course but basic competences in law.

Learning activities and teaching methods are as follow: lecture, role play, analysis of legal documents, roundtable discussion, brainstorming.

Module coordinators:

Tatiana Sorokina Dr. Sci. (Law) Assistant Professor, Law Institute, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russia NArFU (t.sorokina@narfu.ru)

Lliterature:

1. Eger K. Effects of Oil Spills in Arctic Waters: http://www.arctis-search.com/Effects+of+Oil+Spills+in+Arctic+Waters

2. Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean / ed. by P.A. Berkman and A.N. Vylegzhanin. — Springer Science + Business Media Dordrecht, 2013. — 459 p.

3. Franckx, E., Maritime Claims in the Artic: Canadian and Russian Perspectives, Dordrecht, 1993.

4. Kiss A. Guide to International Environmental Law/A.Kiss, D. Shelton. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 330 c.

5. http://www.arctic-council.org/

http://www.beac.st/

Updated 28.05.2015