In addition to Model Arctic Council, which is a simulation of the Arctic Council work, will be there any meetings or seminars?
Each day there will be a number of lecturers and meetings with representatives of political, environmental and research organisations and bodies, introducing participants into the topic of the political cooperation in the Arctic, environmental issues and research. Model Arctic Council opens on 19 September, which is a preparatory day of the Model. This day there will be open lectures given by our keynote speakers: Sven-Olov Carlsson (Deputy Head of EU Delegation in Russia), A.I. Smirnov (President of the National Institute for Global Security Studies, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation), A.A. Sergunin (Professor of International Relations at the St. Petersburg State University), Lev Levit (Senior researcher at the Arkhangelsk Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Section for integrated Arctic research, former employee of the Arctic Council). There will be meetings with Viktor Kuznetsov (Advisor to Director of National Park "Russian Arctic") and Konstantin Zaykov (Director of the Arctic Centre of Strategic Studies (NArFU), Head of the scientific and educational project "Arctic Floating University")
If I play role of a minister, does it mean I will work only one day?
Length of participants’ stay in their "positions" depends on the number of meetings that require presence of the officials they play. So, members of the AC working groups will be participating in the meetings for two days in a row, and, for example, the ministers will hold one meeting. However, it should be noted that the work of senior officials or ministers requires joint work with affiliated members of working groups, in order to prepare presentations during the Model. So in fact, they are starting to be the SOM or the Minister a few days before their separate meetings. More information about the schedule of meetings can be found in the section "Roles and Meetings".
What do “major” and “minor fields of study” mean in the questionnaire for registration?
“Major” means your main field of study; “minor” means additional fields or interests.
Is this Summer School only for NARFU’s students?
Students from any higher education institution, any country, and any field of study can take part in the Model Arctic Council. We are looking for participants interested in and concerned about the Arctic region, willing to discuss the issues of its sustainability, development and protection.
When will be selection results announced?
Since the first deadline for application was 15 August and we take into consideration that some participant might need time for travel arrangement, prominent applicants from other countries and cities will receive information about preliminary selection results before 20 August. Official list of participants will be announced 2 September and published on the webpage not later than 5 September.
Please, download the programme of the MAC (19-23 September, 2016) here.
Keynote speakers and lecturers
Deputy Head of EU Delegation in Russia
Professor of International Relations at the St. Petersburg State University, Russia. His fields of research and teaching include International Relations Theory, Russian foreign policy thinking and making, and Arctic politics. His most recent book-length publications include: Russia in the Arctic. Hard or Soft Power? (Stuttgart, 2016) (with Valery Konyshev); Explaining Russian Foreign Policy Behavior: Theory and Practice (Stuttgart, 2016); Russian Strategies in the Arctic: Avoiding a New Cold War (Moscow, 2014) (with Lassi Heininen and Gleb Yarovoy); Contemporary Military Strategy (Moscow, 2014) (with Valery Konyshev); and Contemporary International Relations Theories (Moscow, 2013) (with Valery Konyshev et al.).
Anatolii Ivanovich Smirnov
President of the National Institute for Global Security Studies, member of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation Messenger. After graduating from the Diplomatic Academy has held senior positions in the central apparatus of the MFA of Russia and abroad, including the former Director of the Department and the Russian Consul General in Northern Norway (Kirkenes) (1992 - 1997 gg.). He had studied computer science in the training center in Norway, the Russian Academy of State Service under the Russian President. He is a scientific consultant for the Russian edition of the UNESCO "History of Mankind". Member of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS), Chairman of the RANS Branch "Information Globalization, Professor of the Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Foreign Ministry and MSIIR (University). He is an honorary doctor of the Northern (Arctic) Federal University.
PhD-degree in Social Philosophy. Senior researcher at the Arkhangelsk Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Section for integrated Arctic research. Areas of interest: social, political and economic development in the Arctic, International co-operation in the Arctic, Norwegian language and society. After 10 years’ lecturing in Norwegian in Arkhangelsk, worked in Norway for 4 years, including a position of Russian language advisor/translator at the Arctic Council Secretariat (2011-2013).
Advisor to Director of National Park "Russian Arctic", PhD in Geographic Sciences. Viktor Kuznetsov is a cofounder of different areas of special protection in the Arctic and specialises in Arctic tourism promotion.
Director of the Arctic Centre of Strategic Studies (NArFU). PhD in History. Member of the Academic Council of the Arkhangelsk Branch, Russian Geographical Society. Executive secretary of the Commission on Science and Higher Education, Interregional Association of polar explorers. Head of the scientific and educational project "Arctic Floating University"
Keynote speakers and lecturers
Please, click on the link below to proceed to the application form:
15 August 2016 - for citizens of RF and foreign applicants with Russian visa
1 August 2016 - for foreign applicants (who need Russian visa)
Extended deadline: 25 August 2016
Applicants will be notified of their selection status by a representative of NArFU and informed about the documentation they are required to provide.
What is Arctic Council?
The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum that provides a means for promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic States, with the involvement of the Arctic Indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues. It was set up between the eight Arctic states, with representatives of the indigenous peoples as permanent participants, in Ottawa in 1996.
Initially, the Arctic Council has been mainly concerned with environmental matters including climate change and pollution, both of which are being felt more heavily in the Northern regions. Nowadays the Arctic region is attracting an increasing attention of the whole world. Thus, the role of Council is growing significantly. Climate change is still a major concern, but rapid economic development and social transformation in the region also represent a significant topic for discussion.
The Arctic Council has limited powers – it issues non-binding protocols on member states, but it provides a dialogue and cooperation between the State Members on the Arctic issues. It makes the voices of indigenous people who are on the receiving end of rapid environmental change in the Arctic to be heard.
The Arctic Council has eight permanent members made up of the eight Arctic countries: Norway, Russia, Canada, US, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden.
The status of Permanent Participants of the Arctic Council is granted to the Indigenous peoples’ organizations. They have full consultation rights in the processes of Council’s negotiations and decision-making. The Arctic Council includes six Indigenous peoples’ organizations with the status of Permanent Participants. They are:
Arctic Athabaskan Council (AAC)
Aleut International Association (AIA)
Gwich'in Council International (GGI)
Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC)
Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON)
Saami Council (SC)
Observers and their role in the Arctic Council
Taking into consideration the Arctic's growing geopolitical significance the Arctic Council allows other countries and organizations not belonging to the “Arctic club” to be closer to the action. Observers do not participate in the decision-making process. They are not able to directly raise issues either, but they can bring them forward through one of the eight core members. The observers of the Arctic Council are non-arctic states (France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, United Kingdom, China, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, India), global and regional inter-governmental and inter-parliamentary organizations (such as International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies, Nordic Council of Ministers and others), and non-governmental organizations (such as University of the Arctic, WWF and others).
Decisions at all levels in the Arctic Council are the exclusive right and responsibility of the eight Arctic States with the involvement of the Permanent Participants, but observers shall be invited to the meetings of the Arctic Council. Their primary task is to observe the work of the Arctic Council. Observers are engaged into work of the Arctic Council at the level of Working Groups where, at the discretion of the Chair, they can make statements after Arctic states and Permanent Participants, present written statements, submit relevant documents and provide views on the issues under discussion. They also may propose projects through an Arctic State or a Permanent Participant. Observers do not have right to take part at Ministerial meetings, but they may submit written statements.
1. Working Groups
The Council's activities are conducted in six Working Groups that are composed of experts representing sectoral ministries, government agencies and researchers. Working Groups engage in the issues such as monitoring, assessing and preventing pollution in the Arctic, climate change, biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, emergency preparedness and prevention, as well as living conditions of Arctic residents etc. The scientific reports represented by Working Groups provide knowledge, advice and recommendations to the Arctic Council. There are six Working Groups of the Arctic Council:
Arctic Contaminants Action Program (ACAP)
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)
Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR)
Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME)
Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG)
2. Arctic Council Session
The Arctic Council Session is Senior Arctic Officials (SAOs) and Permanent Participants (PPs) meet held at least twice a year. SAOs are high-level representatives from the eight member nations. Sometimes they are ambassadors, but often they are senior foreign ministry officials entrusted with staff-level coordination. Representatives of the six Permanent Participants and the accredited Observers also are in attendance at the Arctic Council Session.
During the Arctic Council Sessions SAOs and PPs discuss the issues raised during the work of the Arctic Council Working Groups and take decisions. All Arctic Council decisions are taken according the principle of Consensus.
3. Ministerial Meeting
Ministerial Meeting is the culmination of the Council’s work for the period of two-year cycle. At the Ministerial Meeting the eight Member States are represented by Ministers from their Foreign Affairs, Northern Affairs, or Environment Ministry. A formal, though non-binding, Declaration is signed at the Meeting. It sums up the past accomplishments and the future work of the Council. The Declaration covers such issues as climate change, sustainable development, Arctic monitoring and assessment, persistent organic pollutants and other contaminants, and the work of the Council's six Working Groups. It has become a tradition that the Declaration is named after the town in which the Meeting is held.
What is MAC?
The Summer School Model Arctic Council is an international educational project that presents a simulation of the Arctic Council. It includes lectures, workshops and an intellectual game during which the students replicate the Arctic Council work and discuss the most pressing issues of the Arctic region. The participants role-play the representatives of State Members, Permanent Participants, and Observers during the Working Groups Sessions, Senior Officials Session, and Ministerial Meeting. Prior to the Summer School, the students will be expected to study literature and to write their position papers, which will be discussed during the sessions and evaluated by the experts.
Each day a number of activities are offered to prepare the student for their roles and give them opportunities to take part in the process of political decision-making. The objective of the negotiation is to reach a consensus and produce a Declaration understood as specific actions to be taken by the Arctic states.
At the end of MAC, outstanding delegates in each working group are recognized and given an award certificate.
The idea of the Model Arctic Council is based on the success story of the Model United Nations (MUN). MUN showed to be an effective method of political socialization. Designed to teach the participants about how the UN works, MUN simulations appeared to have a remarkable capacity for developing commitment and emotional support for or attachment to the modeled institution.
The Summer School Model Arctic Council is designed to demonstrate the strength of existing cooperation in the Arctic, to attract more attention to changes in the Arctic and encourage young people to learn more about the region they live in. One of the ways to teach young people about the current issues of the Arctic and the Arctic Council is to provide them with an opportunity to put on the roles of decision-makers, to feel the responsibility for the region. The Summer School aims to draw attention to the Arctic Council as a leading organization in the Arctic political agenda development, including the position of European countries as participants and observers of this organization.
In 2014 a pilot international winter school “Model Arctic Council” took place in NARFU under the auspices of the University of the Arctic (one of the Arctic Council Observers). In 2015 the project got the international support within the UArctic consortium, and in spring 2016 the first UArctic Model Arctic Council was hold by the University of Alaska-Fairbanks, where two students from NARFU took part.
The current Summer School Model Arctic Council is organized by the NARFU students of the course “EU in the Arctic: governance, research, international relations” within J. Monnet project. Its aim is to attract attention to the Arctic issues and international cooperation in the region, and to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Arctic Council.
The Model Arctic Council is a Summer School that runs for 4 days and includes the Introduction part and an Intellectual game during which the participants take on the roles of the Arctic Council participants. Each day a number of activities are offered to prepare the student for their roles and give them opportunities to take part in process of political decision-making at the international level. The objective of the negotiation is to reach a consensus and produce a Declaration understood as specific actions to be taken by the Arctic states. Preferably, it would also include an implementation or follow-up plan.
Day 1 (19 September) - Introduction to the Model Arctic Council
Invited experts will present some of the key issues currently discussed by the Arctic Council, introduce the specificity of the Arctic Council and its activities and guide the participants through different topics related to the work of the Arctic Council and its protocol.
Day 2 (20 September) - Working Groups Session
Students will be assigned to represent a country/ an organization and a working group (SDWG, PAME) in which they will work as representatives of an assigned country/organization.
Day 3 (21 September) - Senior Arctic Officials (SAO) Meeting
In this part of the MAC, all members are divided into delegations, and as members of a delegation they will work together to represent their country interests. They will argue the opinions of other delegates on the problems discussed during the working group sessions. The aim of the discussion is to reach consensus on the discussed issues and write a Declaration that later is presented to the ministers of Arctic States.
Day 4 (22 September) - Ministerial Meeting
Ministerial meeting will be held on the final day and devoted to the simulation of the Arctic Council’s Ministerial meeting.
The Arctic is in a phase of rapid and unpredictable changes. It is one of the most vulnerable regions on the Earth which is heavily affected by ongoing climate change. The average temperature in the Arctic has increased at twice the rate of the global average over the past 100 years. Glaciers and sea ice are melting more extensively than before. A rapidly warming Arctic is threatening Arctic communities through coastal erosion, thawing permafrost and changing ecosystems. At the same time, the business community interest in the Arctic is creating opportunities for economically more advantageous living conditions.
The participants of the Model Arctic Council Simulation are invited to discuss the issues of Sustainable and resilient reindeer husbandry in the Arctic in face of climate change and globalization and Arctic Cruise Ship Tourism. The suggested topic corresponds to the US chairmanship themes for 2015-2017. The main tasks of US chairmanship are to focus on protection and support of Arctic Communities and to promote Arctic Ocean safety, security and stewardship.
Regarding the priorities of US’s chairmanship, we suggest the participants of the Model Arctic Council to simulate three sessions of the Arctic Council with focus on the project EALLU (Arctic Indigenous Youth, Climate Change and Food Culture), provided by the the Sustainable Development Working Group, and the project AMTP (Arctic Marine Tourism Project), provided by the the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment Working Group.
The project on Arctic Indigenous Youth, Climate Change and Food Culture (EALLU) seeks to maintain and further develop a sustainable and resilient reindeer husbandry in the Arctic in face of climate change and globalization, while working towards a vision of creating a better life for circumpolar reindeer herders. The project will focus on youth involvement and engagement, seminars and place-based workshops, local capacity building, summer/ winter schools, networking, as well as co-production of project outputs by youth themselves.
The project on Arctic Marine Tourism Project seeks to promote sustainability within the Arctic marine tourism industry and make a positive contribution to the environment and Arctic communities. The ocean is central to the lives of the people who live in the Arctic and that’s why there is one main question is how will the international community ensure that the Arctic marine environment is protected from unwanted environmental impacts of cruise ship traffic in the Arctic, while balancing the need for economic development in the region?
What is MAC?
What is Arctic Council?
Each delegation (Member states, Permanent Participants and Observers) should develop a brief Position Paper containing their stances on the potential actions to be adopted during negotiations and included in the final document Position paper should be prepared in a memo form (http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Memo) and addressed to the Arctic Council Secretariat.
According to the role you are assigned, you should write your position paper on one of the following topics:
Topic 1: The issues of sustainable and resilient reindeer husbandry in the Arctic in the face of climate change and globalization.
Topic 2: Current situation in Arctic cruise ship tourism in the country you represent during the MAC and its future development.
The suggested topics corresponds to the US chairmanship themes for 2015-2017. The main tasks of US chairmanship are to focus on protection and support of Arctic Communities and to promote Arctic Ocean safety, security and stewardship.
Key elements of the paper include:
Brief introduction of the AC actor;
How the issue affects your country;
Your country's policies with respect to the issue and your country's justification for these policies;
Quotes from your country's leaders about the issue;
Statistics to back up your country's position on the issue;
Actions taken by your government with regard to the issue;
Conventions and resolutions that your country has signed or ratified;
AC actions that your country supported or opposed;
What your country believes should be done to address the issue;
New initiative or what your country would like to highlight during the Working group or Senior Officials Sessions;
How the positions of other countries affect your country's position;
The position paper should be 2-3 pages’ long
Leave margins of 2 cm at the top, bottom, and sides
Do not create a separate title page. Place your real name, role-country, function, and date submitted on four separate lines at the top left of the first page. Place the title on the line below, and centre it. Do not underline, bold, or put the title in quotation marks; do not put it in a different size or style font. Begin the text of the position paper on the line below the title.
Indent the first sentence of every paragraph. Do not insert additional spaces between paragraphs.
Use 12-point font; double-space throughout, including block quotations.
List of references is compulsory
How to Write a Position Paper?
Position paper is an essay detailing a country's policies on given topic. The purpose of position paper writing is to help participants to organize their ideas and to get prepared for further discussions during the MAC.
Position paper should include a brief introduction including a comprehensive breakdown of a country's position on the MAC topic. A good position paper will not only provide facts but also make proposals for resolutions.
At the Model Arctic Council (MAC), there will be 3 types of meetings conducted:
Working Groups meeting;
Senior Arctic Officials (SAOs) meeting;
At all of these meetings MAC participants will sit as follows:
Working Groups Meeting
Meetings are moderated by the Chair. First of all, the Chair gives welcoming remarks. Then Member States and Permanent Participants get inroduced to their working group meeting agenda, prospose changes to the agenda, and vote for it. After that, Member States and Permanent Participants give their short speeches on their country’s or organization’s policy (based on the position paper prepared before). Then working groups participants discuss the projects they are assigned for and prepare a decision paper (or a draft paper/ a paper of records), which will be considered at SAOs meeting.
*** Please note that according to Arctic Council Rules of Procedure, participants can be allowed to make their remarks and statements in the order of arrival only. Decisions of working groups at their meetings are made by a consensus of all eight Arctic States.
Senior Arctic Officials (SAOs) Meeting
Each Arctic State designates a SAO, and each Permanent Participant designates a representative to act to simulate the SAOs meeting. At the begning SAOs and Permanent Participants’ representatives are inroduced to their meeting agenda, prospose changes to the agenda, and vote for it. Then SAOs meeting participants deliver a short speech on their state’s or organization’s position on the issues under the meeting disccusion. After that, the SAOs are expected to receive and discuss reports from working groups. SAOs will review and make recommendations to the Arctic Council on proposals by Arctic States and Permanent Participants to be submitted to a Ministerial meeting with respect to proposed cooperative activities.
*** Please note that according to Arctic Council Rules of Procedure, participants of the SAOs meeting can be allowed to make their remarks and statements in the order of arrival only. Decisions of working groups at their meetings are made by a consensus of all eight Arctic States’ SAOs.
The meeting is held by the Chair. The ministers the eight Arctic States and the heads of delegations of Permanent Participants give a speech in the results of the work of the Arctic Council for the last two years of chairmanship (in our case, for the days of MAC). In the end, the Ministers sign the Declaration prepared by SAOs and working groups.
Please see the list of participants and their roles at the Model Arctic Council in September 2016, here. Please, pay attention that some participants have two roles (will be played in different days, depending on the type of the meeting).
There are four roles that will be simulated at the Model Arctic Council (MAC):
Member States’ and Permanent Participants’ delegates to Working Groups.
Senior Arctic Officials (SAOs).
Heads of Delegations.
Ministers of the Arctic States.
Delegates to Working Groups are representatives of Member States and Permanent Participants in Working Groups of the Arctic Council. Students playing this role will make their introductory statements, work on projects at the meetings of Working Groups and as the result prepare a decision paper on each project for SAOs Meeting.
Senior Arctic Officials and Heads of Delegations are high-ranking public officials of Member States and Permanent Participants who are present at SAOs Meetings, give their speeches and conduct negotiations on Working Groups’ decisions. In the end, they prepare the text of declaration for Ministerial Meeting.
Ministers of the Arctic States are heads of Ministries of Foreign Affairs (of others) of the eight Arctic States. At the final meeting they give some broad remarks about the achievements of this chairmanship (the last two years; in our case the work done during the MAC) and then they say something about what they hope can be achieved in the next two years. In the end, Ministers sign the Declaration prepared by Working Groups and Senior Arctic Officials.